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Preface
Khunti is just 40 Kms away from the state headquarter Ranchi. The district is abysmally stuck in the vicious cycle of illiteracy, unemployment and non–existent land reforms. The pressure of survival leads ultimately to the weakest social links (female) suffering in the form of human trafficking. What follows next are the practices which would seem medieval to the educated masses of today.
The Red menace, the difficult terrain make dispensing programs a challenge to the Govt. machinery. Failure of rains lead to failure of only crop “paddy” in this district and give a boost to the number of migration and trafficking incidents.
Asha Kiran as an institution has lent immense support to the villagers of Khunti by delivering education, promoting livelihood, emancipating women and community building. It is imperative for Khunti and especially for the empowerment of women and adolescent, to provide employment opportunities so that occurrence of malaise likes human trafficking and migration can be reduced or eliminated.
There is need of a united approach of various stakeholders and engagement of NGOs, Govt. Officials, Panchayat, Community leaders and members of the society to ensure delivery of programs, to tailor make existing programs to benefit the domain, to educate the society on migration, trafficking and its menace.
The solution to this can only come through “Communitisation” process where the families, the villages, the panchayats and the officials work for the development of the society. NGOs with deeper reaches can play a lead role in creating the requisite environment by awareness, training, capacity building programs, livelihood programs, liaison with village/panchayat and Govt. officials.

Message from the Project Director
The Ursuline Sisters have pioneered the work of Education of girls and health care in Khunti Sadar since 1904. Gradually we stretched our wings to Maranghada, a very remote area and Dorma in Torpa Block. In 2009 Asha Kiran Shelter Home and School at Fudi in Khunti Block were set up for the rehabilitation of rescued girls through formal education and skill development.
Looking back we feel, among the needs of today, education particularly of girls is of prime importance. As per census 2011, female literacy rate is 53.71% as against male literacy rate 75.33%. As a result of globalization the world has shrunk to a village. A lot changes is taking place in other states of India. Since Jharkhand became a state in 2000, nothing much has changed in the lives of those on the fringes of society, particularly the Tribals who constitute 72.46% of the total population of Khunti district. Khunti district does not offer job opportunities to the people. To add to it, every year rain fall is very un-predictable resulting in poor cultivation. To crown it all, the menace of Maoists make life very insecure for the people.
In spite of all the initiatives the government undertook through various welfare schemes; the issues like illiteracy, the plight of the Tribals & the marginalized, unemployment, poverty, lack of basic amenities of life, health & hygiene are the root causes of unsafe migration, human trafficking and child labour. Within the project: “Rehabilitation of rescued girl children at Asha Kiran Shelter Home, Fudi, Khunti district; the Baseline survey was envisioned to find out the causes of Trafficking, child labour, poverty, illiteracy, lack of employment opportunities and unsafe migration of Tribal women and girls and suggest alternate means of sustainability. We do hope the outcome of the survey would help the Government to make effective plans to combat trafficking, child labour and provide employment for the weaker sections of the society. It would also help the NGOs and the Government to take concrete initiatives to plan and execute livelihood programs through various skill development schemes and be fully committed to shaping a more humane and just society and ensure a better and a meaningful future for those on the fringes of society.
I am sure the survey result would help Ranchi Ursuline Society to plan its educational, health care system and socio-economic development programs more effectively to reach the people at grass root level. The development of the marginalized and vulnerable is the benchmark of a developed society, state and nation.
Education is important, but it is significantly important to girls, because we all know that when a girl child is educated, there is a ripple effect. She is the one who nurtures the child when s/he is growing up. She is the one for all practical purposes, who manages the household. Despite India’s good programs and good policies for education, such as the Government’s decision in 2012 to offer free education for girls, there is non-conducive environment, and there is no mechanism to implement all these things.
The challenge both for the Government & the NGOs is the education and all round development of 91.49% of the rural masses in Khunti district. Both the Government and the NGOs need to work hard hand in hand to change the cultural norm, by offering women and girls a basic education, that they have an instrument of empowerment, to their family, to the community, to the society and the nation. I do hope the result of the survey would help to achieve this end. No child should be denied her/his right to education.
I take this opportunity to express my deep sentiments of gratitude on behalf of Ranchi Ursuline Society to Space Jharkhand, for all the hard work they put in to make the outcome of the survey beneficial for all engaged in developmental work in the district of Khunti.
Sr. Julia George
Project Director, Asha Kiran Shelter Home
E mail: juliageorgek5@gmail.com
www.ashakirankhunti.org

Table of Contents

Preface…………………………………………………………………………………………..2
A Note from the Project Director, AshaKiran……………………………………….3
Abbreviation…………………………………………………………………………………….6
Executive Summary…………………………………………………………………………7
Objectives of the Survey…………………………………………………………………..9
Methodology…………………………………………………………………………………..10
Understanding Socioeconomic Status………………………………………………12
Analysis of Report…………………………………………………………………………..18
Major Observations…………………………………………………………………………27
Recommendations…………………………………………………………………………28
Annexure……………………………………………………………………………………….29

Abbreviation

ANM Auxiliary Nurse Midwife
ASHA Accredited Social Health Activist
AWW Aanganwadi Worker
CHC Community Health Centre
CSO Civil Society Organization
GoI Government of India
GoJ Government of Jharkhand
ICDS Integrated Child Development Services
IEC Information Education Communication
KAP Knowledge Attitude Practice
NGO Non-governmental Organization
PRI Panchayati Raj Institution
SC Scheduled Caste
ST Scheduled Tribe

1. Executive Summary
Introduction: As per the Indian government’s Census 2011, rural India constitutes 68.84 % of Indian populationofwhicharound33%population is under the poverty line. If India has to realize its promised growth and development, it is imperative that this multitude of people be able to earn their livelihood in a sustainable way. This is the very objective with which the government has implemented many development programs to provide employment, social security to the poor community and with the help of that, create sustainable community development process.

This report focuses on the current socioeconomic status, livelihood opportunities and the reasons for migration in the project area in Khunti District. The aim of the report is to try to establish a relationship between vulnerability and various reasons of migration. This report emphasize on the core areas where program should be more tangible towards government scheme, community empowerment, participatory approach and more important to include the community in the decision making process for economy and sustainable livelihood models. A total geographical area of 120 villages across two blocks of the Khunti district of Jharkhand was covered for the study.

Methodology: The captioned study carried out by SPACE with the support of adopted analysis of secondary data and polices at national and state level, primary data of household and village survey. The study is based on the sample survey. Multi stage random sampling has been followed. Two blocks Khunti Sadar & Torpa has been selected while selecting blocks concentrations of ST population, poor socio -economic status were the guiding force. Sixty one villages have been randomly selected from each of the selected blocks and five families from each of the selected village. Thus a total of 602 families has been planned and included in the survey as per plan

Findings, conclusions and recommendations:
• Rural-urban migration and distress migration are emerging as a dominant form of migration amongst tribal community of Jharkhand.
• Unemployment, poverty and lack of basic facilities of education, health and hygiene are still a major problem in the tribal areas forcing them out for migration to various towns and cities.
• The tribal families are not able to meet their basic needs out of their meager income from their occupations and are heavily indebted to the money lenders.
Major Recommendations:
• Ensure sustain able livelihood at place of origin of migration/native village.
• Supplementary source of income for women should be enhanced and strengthened.
• Policies of Migration, Trafficking, Labour & Employment guarantee to be interlinked.
• Employment opportunities, particularly self-employment opportunities should be created at village level to check migration.
• Land reforms and Land rights for women should be implemented.
• Social protection schemes should be strengthened and people should be made aware about such schemes. Accessing the benefits of such schemes should be simplified and made easy and transparent.
• Legal rights awareness campaigns for the migrant women should be done by the administration, CSOs, academia for their capacity building to tackle discrimination, exploitation and violence.
• Pre migration sensitization /orientation of women migrants should be done by the Administration, CSOs, NGO s etc about legal rights, legal aid service, labour laws and complaint redressal mechanisms.

2. Objectives of the Survey

• To provide a current picture of the situation prevailing in relation to, education livelihood, migration in two blocks of Khunti District of Jharkhand so as to determine the project’s contribution to changes among different target groups in response to the project intervention.
• To assess the level of application of the newly enacted Prevention of Trafficking in Persons Act, in the districts of intervention
• To identify relevant referral partners for the project in the districts of intervention that can provide other protection services required by beneficiaries such as shelter, food, education, medical, psycho-social support and reintegration with families.
• To create awareness on the existence of project in the blocks of intervention to the relevant local government authorities and key stakeholders so as to gain their acceptance, cooperation and support that is crucial for the successful implementation of the project.
• To use the results of the baseline survey to assist district administration, Government of India and other stakeholders in setting up benchmarks for the midterm and final evaluation of its program in the districts of intervention.
3. Methodology
The study is based on the sample survey. Multi stage random sampling has been followed.
In the first stage two blocks Khunti Sadar & Torpa has been selected while selecting blocks concentrations of ST population, poor socioeconomic status were the guiding force. Sixty villages have been randomly selected from each of the selected blocks and five families from each of the selected village. Thus a total of 600families has been planned and included in the survey as per plan presented in following table.

S.No   Name of unit                     Total sample size
1            Blocks                                            2
2            Village                                          121
3        Families covered                           602
Table3.1:Sample plan and size of the study

An extensive and intensive field work has been undertaken to make in-depth study of the socio-economic conditions with special reference to the nature and types of migration.
Further, relevant information was also collected from among the social activists, people’s representatives and other important persons with the help of detailed open ended discussions and “Focus Group Discussions (FGDs).

A close ended questionnaire was developed, field tested and finalized before embarking on the field-work. A self-guiding check-list of questions has been prepared for the interviews with officials and FGDs. Besides some Employers, Agencies employing the tribal girls for their services and elected village headmen or Mukhiya were also contacted for in-depth interviews.

State Selected   District Selected         Block         No of Village       Total Sample Size
Jharkhand                Khunti               Khunti Sadar        71                            356
Torpa               50                            246
Total                121                           602

Table3.2: Details of districts, blocks, villages and families surveyed in the study.
Data was collected through:

  • A documentary review of studies, reports and other publications produced about socioeconomic status, child trafficking in Jharkhand;
  • A review of all national and international legal instruments regarding trafficking in persons that focus on child trafficking and an analysis of such reports
  • Interviews with various respondents selected from among the key players in the field (district leaders, judicial authorities, police, NGOs, local leaders) to find out information about socioeconomic status in the district.
  • Base line survey

4. Understanding Socioeconomic Status
Socio-economic indicators provide a back ground to understanding the poverty scenario in a country. These indicators provide data on education, gender, poverty, housing, amenities, employment and other economic indicators. These indicators provide for the linkages between socio-economic indicators and achievement of development goals.
The Rural poverty arises from a number of factors like low agricultural production, population increase, health hazards, low income, illiteracy, and lack of accessibility to natural resources, etc. (Ali, 2007). Inadequate employment opportunities, social hierarchy and systems also play a role in poverty. The multifaceted dimensions of poverty make measurement of poverty a daunting task.

Child trafficking is a problem that has affected the Jharkhand society for a long time, but until recently it has not received much attention from the public and other key stakeholders who should be involved in combating this crime. It is a serious human rights and development issue that is affecting children in many parts of Jharkhand. The general lack of awareness among the population on matters regarding child trafficking and its complex nature has created an attitude of complacency towards this issue in Jharkhand.

4.1 District Profile

Khunti earlier a sub-division of Ranchi district came into existence on 12th Sepetember 2007 as the 23rddistrict of Jharkhand. Part of the South Chotanagpur Commissionary, Khunti is a district with 6 Blocks, situated 40 Km. South of the state capital, Ranchi. The district is birth place of Legendry Birsa Munda and Khunti is historically known as the center of the activities of Birsa Munda and Ulgulan movement, for organizing tribals against oppressions of landlords and British imperialists. He was the first tribal martyr who fought for the country and was among the pioneer of freedom struggle against British. The movement resulted into reorganization of Mundari khunt katti land rights of tribals and historic CNT act.

4.2 Socio-economic Profile
As per 2011 census, Khunti had a population of 530299 of which male and female were 265939 and 264360 respectively. There was a change of 21.96 percentage in the population compared to population as per 2001.

The density of Khunti district as per 2011 census is 215 per Sq. km. The average literacy rate of Khunti in 2011 is 64.51 compared to 52.92 in 2001. Moreover, gender wise male and female literacy is 75.33 and 53.71 respectively in 2011. However, in 2001, male and female literacy was 67.40 and 38.40 respectively.

With regard to sex ratio in Khunti district, it stood 994 per1000 male and is higher compared to national average of 940 as per 2011census. The Khunti district is predominately is a rural society as 91.49% population lives in rural areas. Khunti has a significant tribal population of72.46% and it varies from village to village from 60% to 100%.

The district comes under south chotanagpur region, in chotanagpur plateau. It has hilly terrain and some part of the district is surrounded by mountain ranges and dense forest. It has sub-humid climate with average rainfall 56 inch. It is a rain fed area. The rural areas are the villages and tribal hamlets are scattered in hill sides and forest. Seasonal streams of waterfalls can be found in some areas which are not perennial. The foot hills and plains are utilized for growing paddy crops. The area of cultivable land is small and farmers have small land holdings. The district falls in 5th schedule area. Some of the region falls in Mundari khunt katti land.
The main economic activities of the people of the area are agriculture, forest produce collection and selling; non-farm activities include poultry, piggery, and goat rearing. Total BPL population in the district is 39592 which are approximately 8% of the total population (source: District Supply Department).

Paddy and maze are the two main crops, the agro-climatic condition are suitable for cultivation of variety of fruit like mango, guava, jack fruit, papaya, jamun, etc. However in the absence of assured irrigation facility, agriculture in the district is primarily rain-fed and as a result, mono- cropping and subsistence farming is practiced in the area.

Khunti is listed corridor/ naxal affected IAP district. In recent report of Central government it was listed among most affected state of Jharkhand. In the district two blocks namely Rania and Arki are adversely affected by left wing extremism and it is known as their den in the district. The so called Maoist insurgency and their minor outfits/splinters groups have adversely impacted the socio-economic development of the region, in particular it has been very distressing for the youth of the region.

Khunti has total 747 villages in 86 Panchyat of six blocks with 60-90% tribal population in blocks. Rania and Arkiis 90% munda tribe dominated while other four blocks has munda in majority followed by Oraon and other SC and OBC communities.

Khunti being the munda belt has its own culture and social system. It has tribal self-governance system co-existing along with newly formed PRI institutions. Social, cultural and ethical issues primarily came under the purview of TSG bodies, be it birth, marriage, death, feast, divorce, adoption, mutation of property, etc. The village is headed by Gram Pradhan, where as religious head is called Pahan. The meeting place of the village is called Akhra where community meets every Thursday to discuss social and cultural issues of the village. The village gram sabha gives equal status to women to participate in village gram sabha, in today’s time the discussion agenda also includes awareness on government schemes, land acquisition related issues, forest right issues and selection and drafting demands under various schemes.

SN Variable Data
1 Total area (In Sq. Km) 2733.90
2 Total no. of Gram Panchayat 101
3 Total no. of Revenue Villages 752
4 Male population (Source…Block Data.) 264461
5 Female population (Source…… Block Data ) 285963
6 Sex Ratio 1000 / 936
7 Adolescent population (10-19yrs) 101631
8 Women 15 -49 years 103108
Above 49 years 55806
9 Child population: 0-12 months 11857
13 months – 60 months (5 yr.) 69945
10 SC population : Total 40693
Male 22208
Female 18485
11 ST Population Total 218137
Male 109721
Female 102060
12 PTG Population Total 109
Male 66
Female 43
13 BPL Population (Block Data) 56579
14 No. of Eligible Couples 79086
Table 4.1

BLOCK Profile – TORPA POPULATION – 94141

Variable Data
Total area (In Sq. Km) 506
Total no. of Gram Panchayat 16
Total no. of Revenue Villages 95
No. of PHCs 0
No. of HSCs 18
No. of Anganwadi Centres 122
Total Population (Source..Block.) 94141
Male population (Source. Block) 46768
Female population (Source.. Block.) 47373
Sex Ratio
Table 4.2

Khunti Sadar Block POPULATION – 87681

Variable Data
Total area (In Sq. Km)
Total no. of Gram Panchayat 12
Total no. of Revenue Villages 148
No. of PHCs 1
No. of HSCs 18
No. of Anganwadi Centers 162
Total Population 87575
Male population 31454
Female population 31811
Sex Ratio 1000/994
Adolescent population (10-19yrs) 7594
Table 4.3

Migration for variety of reasons is age old practice but it is increasing at a faster pace over last decades. India as a nation has seen a high migration rate in recent years. According to the National Census for 2001 30% of the population or 307 million were migrants. Of these, nearly a third had migrated during the previous decade. National Census and the National Sample Survey (NSS) use definitions of migration that are not employment related. These are change in birth place and change in last usual place of residence. Secondly they give only the main reason for migration and thus miss secondary reasons which are often work related particularly in the case of women.
Tribal society is largely egalitarian and tribal women have been equal partners with tribal men in the contribution to household economy. Quite often their women do more physical labour in their agricultural fields and forest than that of the tribal men. Tribal women have usually enjoyed a higher social status in their own communities than other Indian women in general.

Migration of the tribal population from Jharkhand has been taking place since the last three centuries and more. In the 18th and 19th Centuries, the migration was forced as the British employed tribal labour to work in the Assam tea gardens. However, since the latter half of the 20th Century, tribal people from these areas have started migrating voluntarily to earn their livelihood in the rural areas of Bihar, West Bengal mainly to work as agricultural labour. Butfrom1980onwards, they started migrating to bigger cities like Delhi, Kolkata and Mumbai. Another new feature of tribal migration from these states in recent years has been the large-scale migration of single women to cities in search of livelihood, which is a subtle change from the earlier migration patterns when only the men migrated to urban centers. Tribal families now a day are driven by poverty to send unmarried daughters to cities in search of work. Single women and tribal girls are however, prone to exploitation not only by employers but also by anti-social elements.
A range and combination of push and pull factors drive circular migration in tribal women in particular and tribal in general. It is important to note that Circular migration, or rural-urban migration, is emerging as a dominant form of migration amongst STs in India.
5. Analysis of Report
Out of the 602 surveyed families surveyed in the two blocks, 1012 male and 997 females were under the various age groups. The average age of productive population is around 41%. Age more than 35 years is around 25%.Our surveyed data indicates that more than 88% of families were ST, 4% SC and 6% OBC in the respective 602 villages as Khunti is one of the tribal dominated district of Jharkhand.

As per the surveyed data 85 % of the total populations are Christian and Sarna religion. Only 14% are Hindu and 1% is Muslim. The data depicts that in the surveyed majority of villages they are followers of Christian and Sarna religion.

The family member range distribution in the surveyed village reflects that 56% of the households having more than 6 members in the family where as 41.2% households having 4to 6 members in the family. Only, 2.6% households are having 1 to 3 members in the family.
5.1 Socio economic Status
Out of 1600 sample representatives, most of them were farmers (84%) and daily wage labourers (13%). Government service is negligible among the families (1%). About 2% were practicing business.

As far as movable assets of the surveyed families is concern, according to data obtained from the two blocks samples indicates that 70% of the families own mobile and about 19% are having TV in their homes, it is very surprising to highlight that about 69% household has a power connection.

The annual income of the surveyed families varies from below than 3000 to more than 10000. However, it is important to note that 49 % of the families have annual income below than Rs. 3000 and 45 % 49 % of the families have annual income between Rs. 3000 to Rs 5000. Only 4 % of the families have annual income between Rs. 10000 to Rs 15000, which reflects that in the surveyed village the earning capacity is minimal.

Although the above data reflects that the earning per family is very poor. But over a period of years the income of families increased due to various government programs like MGNREGA and other social security schemes of government. People moved outside the village in search of livelihood and contribute to their families economically. As per the surveyed data 85 % of the family accepted that over a period of five years the average income of family increased.

Over a period of years government programs like MGNREGA and other plays a major role in uplifting the income of the family. Although in the surveyed village the MGNREGA has not contributed much in their livelihood, but plays a significant role to support the earning of the families. About 53 % of the families accepted that they get work in MGNREGA.
The duration of the support in terms of days differ from family to family. An average 30 days work has been reported from the 53 % of the families from MGNREGA program. About 45.7 % families accepted that they have got a 16 to 30 days work in MGNREGA and only 4.3 % families agreed that they have got 51 to 100 days work.
5.2 Educational Status
Survey result shows uniformity in terms of overall literacy as well as level of education among male members in both Khunti & Torpa blocks. About 52%& 47% of the male members have studied below standard 8 in Khunti & Torpa blocks respectively. About 32% & 35% of the male members have studied up to Matriculation in Khunti & Torpa blocks respectively. About 12% & 13% of the male members have completed their education up to Intermediate and only 4% & 5% have completed their Graduation or opted for Higher education in Khunti & Torpa blocks respectively. Result shows significant decline in terms of level of education from below standard 8 to higher education. Lack of facilities & support by government for higher education, monetary condition of the family & hence need to earn livelihood, lack of employment opportunities and family income can be concluded as major reasons of migration in villages.

Again result shows similar uniformity as that of males in terms of overall literacy as well as level of education among female members in both Khunti & Torpa blocks. About 53% & 48% of the female members have studied below standard 8th in Khunti & Torpa blocks respectively . About 32% & 29% of the female members have studied upto Matriculation in Khunti & Torpa blocks respectively. About 10% & 15% of the female members have completed their education up to Intermediate and only 5% &7% have completed their Graduation or opted for Higher education in Khunti & Torpa blocks respectively. Result shows significant decline in terms of level of education from below standard 8thto higher education. Lack of facilities & support by government for higher education, monetary condition of the family & hence need to earn livelihood, lack of employment opportunities and family income or family support for higher education can be concluded as major reasons of migration in villages.
Education in the interior tribal areas is still a major problem in the selected states in spite of the ongoing national mission programme of Sarva Siksha Abhiyan. The surveyed village data indicate that in both the blocks around more than 50% villages have primary school in the village itself. Anganwari is found to be operational at village level. Less than 10% villages have primary school in more than 2 Km. The surveyed data support the reach of primary education to children at village level, but still there is difference between blocks. Khunti sadar is near to the district town and Torpa is far from the district hence accessibility to primary school is less in Torpa in terms of distance from the village.
Although primary education is not a significant problem at village level but quality of education is always in discussion. High school education is difficult for the village children particularly girls, more than 70 % high schools are at a distance of 2 to 5 km.

Migration Status
As per the surveyed villages majority of the people around 30% migrants in search of employment are in the age group of 19-25 years age group, of which (44%) particularly migrating to towns and cities in search of job opportunities.
Block Yes N0
Khunti 26.9 73.1
Torpa 35.16 64.84
Total 30.40 69.60
Table: Migration from the blocks(%)
The above data reflects that migration is very prominent in these blocks. The families / members migrates are mainly from the tribal community. About 33% Sarna, 30 % Christen and 26 % Hindu migrated from the villages of the total migrant population.

The surveyed data also reflects that the out of total migrant families, majority of migrant members are from nuclear families. A total 82% migration took place from nuclear families where as 18% from joint families. One of the finding of this survey reflects that food availability is not an issue in joint families. Moreover it seems that in joint families there are more earning members than nuclear families.

Also out of total migrant families, majority of migrant members are from BPL category. A total 82 % migration took place from BPL families where as 18% from APL.

The data shows that among people migrating in search of jobs are mainly to the nearby town in state capital Ranchi. About 51.9 % migrates to Ranchi. Around 10 % girls are migrated to Delhi, nearly 7.7% to Kolkata and 14.8 % to other places for jobs mainly house hold jobs.

In the survey we tried not to asked direct questions on trafficking, but there are cases of trafficking in the villages. However, it can be inferred that female / girls who migrated to outside cities other than Ranchi and Khunti have higher likely chance to fall prey to trafficking or exploitation.
Employment Opportunities
Item Frequency Percent
Yes 24 4.0
No 300 49.8
Can’t say 278 46.3
Total 602 100.0
With the increasing demand for basic needs, the cases of migration have been rising steeply during the past many years in the surveyed villages particularly in families who neither have adequate land holdings nor alternate service opportunities. In the absence of adequate employment opportunities, the people are unable to generate enough wages to sustain their livelihood. Women and girls are also not able to find any alternative employment opportunities in the village. The data reflects that about 49.8 % women say that they have not enough opportunities of employment at village level. About 46.3 % women have no idea about the scope of different employment opportunities at village level. Therefore, there is a need for making them awareness of various employment opportunities available. There is also a further need to brief them about the various government schemes.
It was also depicted during the survey that at village level women are interested in formation of SHG groups. About 75.3% women are part of the SHG groups, but very few SHGs are fully functional. Only 8% of the women accepted that they have taken loan from bank, whereas 75.5% women have no response against bank loan.
SHG Members
Item Frequency Percent
Yes 454 75.3
No 73 12.1
Can’t say 75 12.6
Total 602 100.0
Bank Loan
Item Frequency Percent
Yes 48 8.0
No 100 16.6
No response 454 75.5
Total 602 100.0

6. Major Observations
• Rural-urban migration and distress migration are emerging as a dominant form of migration amongst tribal community of Jharkhand.
• In spite of the great emphasis laid on women’s education in the last five years plan, the facilities and incentives given, majority of the tribal women and girls remained without education even after migration to cities.
• Unemployment, poverty and lack of basic facilities of education, health and hygiene are still a major problem in the tribal areas forcing them for migration to various towns and cities.
• The tribal families are not able to meet their basic needs out of their meager income from their occupations and are heavily indebted to the money lenders.
• Tribal migrant women exploitation is mostly done by the middle men who offer them promises of good emoluments, good placement and work conditions and it’s only when they reach the workplace they realize that they have been cheated.
• Education and vocational guidance and training for development of their skills with a view to improve their potential for employment are lacking in tribal areas.
7. Recommendation
• Ensure sustainable livelihood at place of origin of migration/native village.
• Supplementary source of income for women should be invented and enhanced.
• Policies on Migration, Trafficking, Labour and Employment guarantee need to be interlinked.
• There is a need to ensure quality education at primary level as well as promote higher education, vocational training for young children particularly girls.
• Minor and Micro Irrigation facilities along with renovation of traditional water harvesting systems should be taken up.
• Employment opportunities, particularly self-employment opportunities need to be created at village level to check migration.
• SHGs should be made sustainable and the members should be given intensive capacity building, marketing linkage facilities etc.
• SHGs should be made a strong unit of social safety net.
• Social protection schemes need to be strengthened and people should be made aware about such schemes. Accessing the benefits of such schemes should be simplified and made easy and transparent.
• Legal rights awareness campaigns for the migrant women should be done by the administration, CSOs, academia for their capacity building to tackle discrimination, exploitation and violence.
• There is a need to make a network of women’s organizations and various agencies at states/districts level for complaint redressal of women migrants.
• Village panchayats should be involved in registration of migrants and mobility record keeping of the village. ASHAs, ANMs and AWWs should be involved in migration registration.
• Pre migration sensitization /orientation of women migrants should be done by the Administration, CSOs, NGOs etc and they should be made aware about their legal rights, legal aid service, labour laws and complaint redressal mechanisms

 

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